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發表於 2019-5-17 22:01:39 |顯示全部樓層
https://www.google.com.hk/amp/s/ ... So-YOU-worried.html

[size=1.2em]How would you view a man who's stockpiled a lifetime supply of old-fashioned lightbulbs because he believes low-energy bulbs could lead to blindness?
[size=1.2em]You might well dismiss him as dotty. But the man in question, John Marshall, is no crank. In fact, he's one of Britain's most eminent eye experts, the professor of ophthalmology at the University College London Institute of Ophthalmology. So concerned is he that he has boxes stacked with old-fashioned incandescent lightbulbs at home.
[size=1.2em]'I bulk bought incandescent lightbulbs before the Government made it illegal to import them,' he says.
'I can't give you an exact number, but I have enough to see me out.'
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Top eye expert Prof John Marshall has boxes stacked with old-fashioned incandescent lightbulbs at home

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[size=1.2em]Nor is he alone in his concerns about modern lightbulbs. Another eminent British professor, John Hawk, an expert in skin disease, is warning they may cause sunburn-like damage, premature aging and even skin cancer.
[size=1.2em]He doesn't have any low-energy bulbs in his house, explaining: 'I have lots of old-style bulbs I bought in bulk when they were available.'
[size=1.2em]Incandescent bulbs had been the standard form of illumination for more than a century. But following an EU directive, the Government banned the import of 100-watt bulbs from 2009. This was followed by a ban on 60w bulbs in 2011 and a full ban on all 'traditional' bulbs in 2012.

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[size=1.2em]The EU directive was aimed at cutting fuel and carbon emissions. The low-energy bulbs - or compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), to give them their technical name - are said to use 80 per cent less electricity and to  last longer.
[size=1.2em]Old-fashioned incandescent bulbs work by electrically heating a filament inside a glass globe filled with inert gas, so that it emits light.
[size=1.2em]Instead of a glowing filament, low-energy bulbs have argon and mercury vapour within a spiral-shaped tube. When the gas gets heated, it produces ultraviolet light. This stimulates a fluorescent coating painted on the inside of the tube. As this coating absorbs energy, it emits light.
[size=1.2em]The concern is about some of the light rays emitted in high levels by these bulbs, says Professor Marshall.  Recent scientific evidence shows these specific rays are particularly damaging to human eyes and skin.
[size=1.2em]Light is made up of a spectrum of different coloured rays of light, which have different wavelengths. As he explains: 'Light is a form of radiation. The shorter the wavelength, the more  energy it contains.
'The most damaging part of the spectrum is the short wavelength light at the indigo/violet end of blue.
'Incandescent bulbs did not cause problems, but these low-energy lamps emit high peaks of blue and ultraviolet light at this wavelength.'

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Low-energy bulbs are said to use 80 per cent less electricity and to last longer

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[size=1.2em][size=1em]HOW THEY CAN ATTACK YOUR EYES
[size=1.2em]In the same way ultraviolet rays in sunlight can cause premature aging in our skin if we get sunburnt, there is a similar situation in the eye, says Professor Marshall.
[size=1.2em]'You shed skin every five days, but your retina is with you for life.'
[size=1.2em]The retina at the back of the eye is vital for sight - it's made up of light-sensitive cells that trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain, where visual images are formed.
[size=1.2em]Sustained exposure to ultraviolet light wavelengths from CFLs increases the risk of two seriously debilitating eye conditions, macular degeneration and cataracts, the professor claims.
[size=1.2em]With macular degeneration, the macula, which is at the centre of the retina, becomes damaged with age. A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye. These are two of the leading causes of blindness in Britain.
[size=1.2em]'If you are in a country with high levels of ultraviolet light, your eyes will age faster,' he says. 'This is why the incidence of cataracts is earlier and greater nearer the equator, where sunlight is at its strongest, so there is more light across all spectrums. CFLs may have a similar effect.
[size=1.2em]'The exposure can also significantly increase your risk of macular degeneration. The biggest risk factor for this is age, as it commonly starts to affect people from 60 to 80.
[size=1.2em]'You will almost certainly exacerbate that risk with low-energy lightbulbs,' adds the professor, who last month warned his colleagues of the dangers at Optrafair, a national education forum for opticians.
Invented in the late 1800s, but how do light bulbs work?




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[size=1.2em]READING LAMP DANGER ZONES
[size=1.2em]But it's not just your eyes that may be at risk from these lightbulbs.
[size=1.2em]Professor John Hawk, the retired head of the photobiology unit at St John's Institute of Dermatology, King's College, London, warns: 'There is good evidence that the CFLs that have been foisted upon us emit radiation sufficient to cause damage to the skin if used close by for long enough.'
[size=1.2em]He says the risk is particularly high if the bulb is a metre or less from your body, which is common as people use them in reading lamps.
[size=1.2em]'There is evidence that demonstrates that the lamps can not only cause damage to skin, but also short-term symptoms such as sun rash and prickly heat, a condition that medically is called polymorphic light eruption.
[size=1.4em]1801
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The year ultraviolet rays were discovered by physicist Johann Wilhelm


[size=1.2em]'As with any ultraviolet damage, these effects can add up over the years. The cumulative effect of this ultra-violet light causing burning, skin cell damage and aging skin, is that it must to some small, but significant, extent, increase the risk of skin cancer.'
[size=1.2em]Low-energy bulbs are also known to cause trouble to people who have lupus, an auto-immune disorder that typically affects the skin, joints and internal organs. Irritation caused by ultraviolet light worsens the rashes, joint pain and fatigue associated with the disease.
[size=1.2em]According to the Lupus Foundation of America, up to two-thirds of people with the condition are sensitive to CFLs.
[size=1.2em]The EU has acknowledged that exposure to low-energy lightbulbs may cause skin damage. But a report published in 2008 by its Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks said this risk is only with  'prolonged' exposure at distances of less than 20cm.
[size=1.2em]In such cases, 'CFLs may lead to UV exposures approaching the work- place limit set to protect workers from skin and retinal damage'.
[size=1.2em]The LINK TO MIGRAINE
[size=1.2em]'Migraines and epilepsy are also problems,' says Professor Hawk. 'I have seen 30 skin patients in my clinic who have been experiencing these problems linked to the bulbs.'
[size=1.2em]This may be because low-energy bulbs can flicker imperceptibly (incandescent bulbs flicker only when they are about to break).
[size=1.2em]A 2013 study in the journal Neurology found that flickering lights are likely to trigger migraines in some sufferers. Flickering lights are also a trigger for epileptic fits.
[size=1.2em]Eleanor Levin, 44, a teacher of Spanish and music from Lancaster, blames low-energy bulbs for her headaches. She says she can't be in the same room as one as it will trigger attacks of nausea, confusion and migraine. She first noticed the problem three years ago, when she began to suffer headaches in the office where she worked. 'In the end, it made me so ill I had to give up that job,' she says.

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Flickering lights are likely to trigger migraines in some sufferers. They are also a trigger for epileptic fits

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[size=1.2em]Eleanor has seen an array of doctors and neurologists.
[size=1.2em]'Some neurologists have told me they believe the problem is caused by light flickering and is related to migraines,' she says.
[size=1.2em]'I have old-fashioned incandescent lights at home and don't get headaches - that's why I now teach students at home for a living. I'm also fine with halogen bulbs.'
[size=1.2em]But she says she has to be careful where she goes at night. 'Luckily, there are enough places that use gentle ambient light without these bulbs,' she says.
[size=1.2em]'The EU accepts there can be skin-damage problems related to low-energy lightbulbs, but not headaches. I suspect there are a lot of people who suffer milder problems with CFL bulb-related headaches, but who have not made the link with the cause.'
[size=1.2em]It's also previously been reported that low-energy bulbs contain small amounts of mercury, raising concerns that if the glass is broken, this toxic substance could be released into the air or landfill.
A study by Germany's Federal Environment Agency found a broken low-energy bulb emits levels of the vapour up to 20 times higher than the safe guideline limit for an indoor area.
[size=1.2em]While the amounts are relatively small, if a low-energy bulb does break, Public Health England advises householders to evacuate the room and leave it to ventilate for 15 minutes.
[size=1.2em]You're advised to wear gloves while wiping the area with a damp cloth and picking up the fragments - these should be placed in a plastic bag, then sealed.
[size=1.2em]This should be taken to a council dump and placed in  a special recycling bank - councils do not collect hazardous waste in normal collections.
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Incandescent bulbs had been the standard form of illumination for more than a century

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[size=1.2em]R[size=1em]ISK OF FAULTY BULBS
[size=1.2em]Another potential concern is that low-energy bulbs bought off the shelf vary considerably in the amount of dangerous spectrum ultraviolet light they emit, according to research at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, by Professor Harry Moseley, its head of photo-biology. 'There appear to be significant problems with quality control in their manufacture,' he says.
[size=1.2em]'Our testing has found that in a batch of ten CFLs from randomly selected makers, one may be significantly worse than  the rest, because, for example, it has a fault in its light-shielding.'
[size=1.2em]Professor Moseley says that the 'single-envelope' bulbs - the low-energy bulbs where the coiled  parts are visible - tend to emit the highest levels of ultraviolet light.
[size=1.2em]He believes those with a 'double' envelope - where a pearly dome like an old- fashioned lightbulb covers the coiled parts - tend to block out UV light 'much better'.
[size=1.2em]Dermatologist Professor Hawk acknowledges the efforts to improve the bulbs by providing clouded glass domes.
[size=1.2em]'But we are not sure how improved they are,' he says.
[size=1.2em]He has been trying to lobby the EU to lift its ban on incandescent bulbs.
[size=1.2em]'I have talked to the committee on light safety in Brussels about these concerns, but no one there seems to be interested in this,' he says.
[size=1.2em]'The EU was trying to be green by introducing CFLs, but they did not think of the health consequences. They are  very reluctant to reverse  its policies.'
[size=1.2em]Anne Vick, the communications director of Lighting Europe, the industry association representing leading lighting manufacturers, maintains 'there is no risk from ultra- violet light exposure emitted by  CFLs as their UVA and UVB rays are well within the limits that guarantee consumer protection'.
She adds: 'European scientific experts have not found any health impact from UV rays emitted by energy-saving bulbs in normal conditions.
[size=1.2em]'For workers exposed to high levels of light and for people affected by extreme light sensitivity, experts recommended using double-envelope lamps.
[size=1.2em]'CFLs comply with all relevant consumer protection legislation. All lamps are thoroughly tested in order to ensure safe applications for all consumers.'
[size=1.2em]Meanwhile, an EU spokes- person told the Mail that 'based on scientific evidence, an EU scientific committee in 2008 and the UK's Health Protection Agency came to the conclusion that in normal use compact fluorescent lamps do not pose risks to the general public'.
[size=1.2em]However, Professor Moseley is not convinced.
[size=1.2em]He says that what's needed is better legislation from the EU on the quality and safety of  low-energy lighting.
[size=1.2em]'But they are very reluctant,' he says. 'Their feeling is that it is the sufferers' problem. In Brussels, the carbon emission targets take precedence.'
[size=1.2em]Eye expert Professor Marshall has a far simpler, if rather blunt, solution.
[size=1.2em]'I would like to urge the manufacturers of these lightbulbs to get rid of them.'




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發表於 2019-5-17 22:03:25 |顯示全部樓層
http://notsomoon.blogspot.com/2014/03/blog-post_27.html

用那種燈泡最好?

[size=14.850000381469727px]

用那種燈泡最好?這樣問,是因為環境局及機電工程署為了推動節能,於2013年6月推出「不要鎢絲燈泡」能約章,鼓勵停止用鎢絲燈泡。簽署節能約章的供應商同在年年底已停售25瓦或以上的鎢絲燈泡


鎢絲燈泡的「罪名」是不節能。原來鎢絲燈泡是利用電阻把鎢絲加熱至白熾,用來發光,所以又稱白熾燈泡,但發光率低,僅有約一成能源可轉為光能,其餘都以熱能散失,而且燈泡的壽命短。不用鎢絲燈泡,又用那種燈泡最好呢?



其中之一是俗稱石英膽的鎢絲鹵素燈泡,它是鎢絲燈泡的改良版,因燈泡充有一些鹵素氣體 (halogen),延長燈絲壽命和提高發光效率達25%,更耐用4倍。但鎢絲鹵素燈會產生紫外光,影響眼睛及皮膚,所以一般會置於一個杯型的反光鏡內,再密封以阻隔紫外光。飛利把鎢絲鹵素燈「打扮」成鎢絲燈泡的樣式,可直接替換家中的鎢絲燈泡,十分方便。如果鹵素燈泡未算理想,用那種燈泡好呢?


市面較常見的是慳電膽(又稱節能燈)。慳電膽是把微型光管與電子鎮流器結合,加上「釘頭」或「鏍絲頭」接口,可直接替換鎢絲燈泡。慳電膽並非沒有問題。由於慳電膽的消耗功率與光相近,所以不會比光省電,但售價比光管貴,偶然也遇到質素很差,例如最近用的一個飛利浦「小精靈」14W慳電膽,只維持了數小時便「報廢」,浪費了$26.4。另外,慳電膽與光管同是閃爍的光源,較易令眼睛疲倦。此外,慳電膽含有微量的汞 (水銀),雖然未必會對人體有害,但若回收不得法,會污染環境。如果在家中不慎打碎慳電膽,應打開窗門,暫離現場,讓有害氣體消散。還有那種燈泡好些呢?



較新的產品是LED。它利用半導體發光二極管作為光源,由於每顆發光二極管的光度低,所以一個LED燈泡會用上多顆發光二極管。很多製造商都把LED「打扮」成鎢絲燈泡或光管的樣式,方便直接替換。LED燈泡能源效益高,燈泡壽命長,但售價比所有其他照明光源高很多,例如一支3呎光管是13元,但3呎的LED燈是180元,其壽命及節能可否彌補其溢價呢?近年又有關於LED的藍光會傷眼的說法流傳,特別是兒童,造成有些人不敢使用。過量藍光對眼不好,所以採用的LED的亮度,不應超過原來燈泡的亮度太多。


用那種燈泡最好?沒有肯定的結論,「最好」的燈泡,可能是各種燈泡的組合配搭,例如客廳飯廳、浴室廚房的一般照明,可用慳電膽或LED燈,好處是節能。書架、儲物櫃、走廊通道等可用鎢絲鹵素燈泡,好處是體積小、耐用、光源集中。至於書檯燈和閱讀燈,可能的話,寧取40W的鎢絲燈泡,好處是光線較像陽光,沒有閃爍,比較「養眼」,何況40W也不算耗電。


尋找「最好」的那種燈泡,取代原來的燈泡時,以耗電量 (wattage, W)作準則並不是最準確,按燈泡的亮度(lumen, 流明)比較好。


各種燈泡的耗電量與亮度,是有客觀標準,就算沒有最好」的燈泡,仍可設計一個適用的照明組合,取代鎢絲燈泡。
鎢絲燈泡
流明 (lumen)
鹵素燈泡
慳電膽
LED燈泡
40W
450
29W
9-13W
4-5W
60W
800
43W
13-16W
6-8W
75W
1100
53W
17-23W
9-11W
100W
1600
72W
23-30W
11-15W


Posted by 新月人at 上午2:08
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發表於 2019-5-17 22:05:04 |顯示全部樓層
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-506347/An-energy-saving-bulb-gone--evacuate-room-now.html

An energy saving bulb has gone - evacuate the room now!
By MARTIN DELGADO
Last updated at 01:27 06 January 2008





Energy-saving light bulbs are so dangerous that everyone must leave the room for at least 15 minutes if one falls to the floor and breaks, a Government department warned yesterday.




The startling alert came as health experts also warned that toxic
mercury inside the bulbs can aggravate a range of problems including migraines and dizziness.


And a leading dermatologist said tens of thousands of people with skin complaints will find it hard to tolerate being near the bulbs as they cause
conditions such as eczema to flare up.


The Department for Environment warned shards of glass from broken bulbs should not be vacuumed up but instead swept away by someone wearing rubber gloves to protect them from the bulb's mercury content.


In addition, it said care should be taken not to inhale any dust and the broken pieces should be put in a sealed plastic bag for disposal at a council dump – not a normal household bin.


None of this advice, however, is printed on the packaging the new-style bulbs are sold in. There are also worries over how the bulbs will be disposed of.


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Under new regulations for hazardous waste, councils are obliged to recycle them.


At present, they should be placed in special bins also used for batteries at a council dump. But in future, councils will have to provide a collection service or install special recycling banks for the bulbs.


There are fears that without a proper disposal system, the mercury content could contaminate water supplies.


But disposing of one municipal recycling bin full of bulbs costs about £650 each time, adding to fears of higher council tax bills.


The warnings cast a shadow over Government plans to begin phasing out traditional tungsten lights this month.


Ministers hope that using the more environmentally friendly bulbs will save at least five million tons of carbon dioxide emissions every year.


The bulbs are due to become compulsory in homes in four years.
Campaigners are calling for an
opt-out so that people with health problems can still use old-style bulbs.


Others are thinking of hoarding the familiar pear-shaped bulbs so that they can keep on using them even after they have disappeared from the shops.


Independent environmental scientist Dr David Spurgeon warned yesterday: "Because these light bulbs contain small amounts of mercury, they could cause a problem if disposed of in a normal bin.


"It is possible that the mercury could be released into the air or from land-fill when they are released into the wider environment. That is a concern, because mercury is a well-known toxic substance."


And dermatologist Dr John Hawk, told BBC Radio 4's Today programme that some people already find it difficult to tolerate the fluorescent-strip lighting that is widely used in schools and offices, which works in the same way as the eco-friendly bulbs.


He said: "Fluorescent lights seem to have some sort of ionising characteristic where they affect the air around them.


"This does affect a certain number of people, probably tens of thousands, in Britain, whose ailments flare up just by being close to them.


"Certain forms of eczema – some of which are very common – do flare up badly anywhere near fluorescent lights, so these people have to just be around incandescent (old-style) lighting."


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